Mongolian has an extreme harsh weather condition because of highly elevated from the sea level about 1500 meters, surrounded by high mountain ranges from each side in the mainland of Euroasian and remote from the seas and oceans. The most specific thing in the Mongolian weather condition is it has four seasons and very different from each other, so the temperature has a high fluctuation, low precipitation. Mongolia has a short and dry summer /continues between June and mid August/, cold and long winter/ continues between November and April/, and the periods of spring and autumn are changing every year.
The average temperature of the year is +0.2C, winter is about -10 to -30C summertime is +10 to +25C. It is colder in the mountainous areas such as Altai, Khangay, Khentii and Khovsgol mountains, the average of the year is -4C and -6C in the bigger river valleys and warmer in the south gobi +6C. The minimum temperature of the winter down to -28C to -54C and the maximum temperature of the summer heats up to +30C to +45C.
However Mongolia has lower precipitation, each part has a different amount of precipitation, depends on the location of bigger mountains and its elevation. For example: 260-380 mm in the Khangai, Khentii, Khovsgol mountainous areas and bigger river basins. It is 80-140mm precipitation in the Altai mountains and 175-275 mm precipitation drops in the steppe areas. Gets fewer from the north to the south, the minimum is 60-160 mm in the gobi desert areas. It is much lower in the southern gobi of Altai mountains and around the border, about 30-50 mm or less.